Mindfulness

Standing Firm - Why it sometimes hurts to stand from sitting?

The sit-to-stand (STS) is a test used to measure lower-limb strength in older people or those with significant weakness (1). 

It is considered an easy, quick and fairly valid measure, which involves measuring the time taken to stand from a seated position a certain number of times, or recording the number of repetitions you can do in a given period (2).

The findings of recent studies suggest performance in this test is influenced not just by factors associated with strength, but also balance and mobility, and a vast array of psychological factors (1).

But what about when sit-to-stand hurts?

Low back pain can reduce spine, hip and pelvic floor motion due to conscious or unconscious guarding associated with pain (3). 

Multiple studies have shown there are changes in how energy is transferred between bone and soft tissue in the spine, pelvis, and legs associated with pain (4).  And that inefficient energy flow or transfer then places more demand from everything.  A cycle of back pain-altered biomechanics can start, creating more back pain. With all the changes in energy transfer and muscle power, everyday activities such as standing up from a sitting position can become difficult.  

Muscle coordination, balance and mobility are affected, and psychological factors start to play in and effect our beliefs and so the cycle continues (1).

Stopping the cycle can be easy. 

You just bypass your traditional route to standing and try something different altogether. 

Try these simple tips.  You may not need all of them:

RELAX before you start

WIDER STANCE - think SUMO wrestler

SLOW DOWN (TIMING) - move more slowly

HANDS ON KNEES

BREATHE OUT - this is a big one.  The less compression in the container of the torso the better. 


Many people are surprised they can suddenly sit-to-stand with no pain after weeks or months experiencing twinges and outright muscle spasms when trying to stand after sitting.  


After a few days of pain free sit-to-stand, you can try heading back to your old ways as there is rarely a “right” way to do something.  You can get up and down any way you choose, each one of them equally valid. 


As a lot of research shows, the way you do something does start to matter. If you always get up and down via your arm on the desk, leaning forward to create momentum, it means the strengths necessary to do it another way are waning. 

Can this help if I have pain elsewhere?


This can also break the cycle if you experience pain in hips, knees and feet.


references


1. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2002 Aug;57(8):M539-43. Sit-to-stand performance depends on sensation, speed, balance, and psychological status in addition to strength in older people. Lord SR1, Murray SM, Chapman K, Munro B, Tiedemann A.


2. Exp Gerontol. 2018 Oct 2;112:38-43. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2018.08.006. Epub 2018 Sep 1. The sit-to-stand muscle power test: An easy, inexpensive and portable procedure to assess muscle power in older people. Alcazar J1, Losa-Reyna J2, Rodriguez-Lopez C1, Alfaro-Acha A3, Rodriguez-Mañas L4, Ara I1, García-García FJ5, Alegre LM6. 

3. Explain Pain Supercharged G. Lorimer Moseley and David S.
Butler. Adelaide City West: NOI Group Publishers, 2017. ISBN: 978-0-6480227-0-1

4. Gary L. Shum, PhD, et al. Energy Transfer Across the Lumbosacral and Lower-Extremity Joints in Patients with Low Back Pain During Sit-to-Stand. In Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. January 2009. Vol. 90. No. 1. Pp. 127-135.

Jaws 42 - The Curse of TMD (Temporomandibular Joint Disorder)

 All credit of this image go to Steven Spielberg and novelist Peter Benchley. Also to Zanuck/Brown Productions and Universal Pictures.

All credit of this image go to Steven Spielberg and novelist Peter Benchley. Also to Zanuck/Brown Productions and Universal Pictures.

It has been nearly 42 years since the legendary movie "Jaws" was released. It was a cinema masterpiece of its time with bucket loads of suspense and horror that managed to scare everyone from swimming in the ocean for years afterward. Well, so I'm told. With the clever use of animatronics, images of bloody big dorsal fins and spooky music it left movie goers nursing tense and sore jaws from clenching their teeth through anxiety and fear. Segue complete. See that? Jaws and jaw pain? 

Jaw pain is a pretty common issue affecting 33% of the general population at some time in life (1). Of that population there seems to be more significant spike in the age range of 20-40 year olds, with a significant portion of that number needing to seek treatment from a health professional. Anxiety is a key contributor to jaw pain but it is not the only reason people experience pain in/around the jaw or temporomandibular joint (TMJ). We commonly refer to pain around the TMJ as Temporomandibular Joint Disorder or TMD. It is actually not one single disorder but representative of multiple sub groups of issues. They are typically categorised as muscle problems or joint problems.

WHAT CAN YOUR OSTEOPATH DO?

At Fairfield Osteopathic Clinic we take into account the whole person when dealing with the treatment of TMD. In other words we need to understand the underlying causal factors, which may range from mechanical joint factors, emotional stress or functional overuse issues (think Australian gum-chewing cricketer). There are also direct links between neck pain and TMD and any assessment will recognise the connection. There is plenty of evidence both clinically and through peer reviewed research to suggest that the neck and jaw are pretty tight in their relationship with one another (pardon the pun). One paper suggesting that 70% of TMD sufferers also experience neck pain (2). 

A worthy TMD assessment will always encompass an actual physical assessment of the muscles around the jaw and the joint movement itself. This will guide treatment options. As osteopaths we use lots of direct and indirect techniques to modulate pain, but without addressing underlying causal factors that impact the jaw then relief may not last for long. These irritating causal factors might include chewing gum, chewing meals on one side of the mouth, specific dental issues, night time bruxism or teeth grinding and habitual jaw clenching (a lot of people don't realise they clench until they actively relax their jaw muscles). There are simple relaxation exercises for the jaw that are easy to practice and master. Head down to the end of the BLOG for some ideas.

SELF MANAGEMENT 

Self management strategies are essential in dealing with any long term TMD. A large study published in November 2016 attempted to collate as much data on self management strategies and form a best practice management strategy for longterm TMD. These strategies include:

1. Education - a bit of positivity is a good start as pain is usually self-limiting. Understanding the anatomy and usual function of the TMJ complex and associated musculature can be helpful too. Other ideas include improved sleep hygiene (don't watch Jaws before bed), sensible and time-limited use of analgesia, avoidance of OTC splints bought without consultation with a dentist, limit caffeine usage, ‘doctor shopping’ won't help.

2. Self exercise therapy - gentle stretches for the jaw muscles and relaxation exercises, which are best explained by your osteopath.

3. Heat treatment - usually heat for sore jaw muscles is best. Ice treatment is best avoided due to the sensitivity of the nerves that innervate the area (remember ice-cream headaches)

4. Self massage therapy - there are very simple self massage techniques for the main jaw muscles and upper neck muscles. Again these are best explained in person as a little goes a long way.

5. Diet and Nutrition  - it's important to establish a pain-free diet for at least three weeks. That means avoiding excessive chewing or hard-to-chew foods. In other words TMD sufferers may need to establish a "soft diet" until sensitivity decreases.

6. Parafunctional behaviour - this is the tricky one. There are often habits that irritate the jaw that we seem to not have as much control over e.g. grinding teeth or jaw clenching during sleep, which is called nocturnal bruxism. This may require some other modalities of therapy or medication to help. Reflecting on coping strategies for stress and anxiety may be pivotal to changing some of these nocturnal habits (3).

EASY EXERCISE

Stand in front of a mirror.

Hold your palms gently on the side of your face - covering your cheeks.

Let your lower jaw fall into your hands. In other words relax it and let it go all loose.

Now practice that again without using yours hands on your face. Make as long a face as possible. 

If you are having trouble mouth the sound "Bah". It lets your lower jaw fall open. Repeat that until you get a sense of your jaw relaxing.

If you practice this in the mirror then when you are at work throughout the day you can put your hands on your face and use that as a trigger for your face and jaw to relax. You are creating awareness around the difference between tension and ease. 

Good luck and don't hesitate to make a booking to see us if things are a bit out of control.

 

References

1. Wright, Edward F., and Sarah L. North. "Management and treatment of temporomandibular disorders: a clinical perspective." Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 17.4 (2009): 247-254.

2. Silveira, A., et al. "Jaw dysfunction is associated with neck disability and muscle tenderness in subjects with and without chronic temporomandibular disorders." BioMed research international 2015 (2015).

3. Durham, Justin, et al. "Self‐management programmes in temporomandibular disorders: results from an international Delphi process." Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 43.12 (2016): 929-936.

 

 

 

Enter your email address:

Delivered by FeedBurner

 

 

Slow and steady wins the race

The simple solution for the complex problem

When pain hangs around for longer than expected this can be immensely frustrating for patients.  But when problems are complex and recalcitrant they can also be frustrating for practitioners.

A complex problem requires patience from both parties.  If a patient has a story of brokenness, then it takes the right information, at the right time provided in the right way for that person to help turn that story into one of hope.  

So many of us are pressed for time and aren't we all searching for the simple, immediate solution to any problem?   

Often a simple and effective solution can be manual therapy.  Good practitioners can be really good at providing an immediate relief for pain.  Whether it lasts is another story and the transient relief for patients can be at once addictive and ultimately frustrating.  

A good practitioner will combine manual therapy and education. Education comes in multiple forms, knowledge about why it hurts, and information about pain can help redirect the assumption of brokenness.

Education can also be advice about unhelpful behaviours, thoughts or beliefs.  And it most certainly should involve having a discussion about the true 

 

A good clinician will help find your baseline for activities and armed with good knowledge, your brain and body will know you're safe even if you experience some discomfort.

A fair amount of frustration exists around trying to increase physical activity, which as we know from the literature (and the media) is a magic bullet (1). But many people have the experience that simply increasing the amount they move increases their pain. Often, they'll take the weekend warrior approach.  They join a gym and do a body balance class and end up crawling in for pain relief as their low back and neck are screaming at them. If the alarm bells are ringing and you're getting negative feedback from every part of you it's hard to make the connection that it's a) good for you, and b) we need to do more of it and finally c) do it forever.  

A good clinician will help find your baseline for activities and armed with good knowledge, your brain and body will know you're safe even if you experience some discomfort.

 

I listened recently to a great podcast with Neil Pearson, who is a physical therapist in Canada, who uses graded exposure to therapeutic yoga to help people with complex pain problems.  But it doesn't have to be yoga that gets you there.  The simple and free option is walking.  

What is graded exposure?

Graded exposure is a fancy way of saying that you need to start with a small amount of something that threatens you and as your brain and body tolerate it, add in a bit more the next day until you can participate in an activity you enjoy without a backlash. 

So what does a graded exposure program to walking look like?   

Start with a baseline of 10 minutes per day at around 65% of your maximum heart rate.  In the range of comfortably carrying on a conversation.  Up the benefits and go with a friend.

You need to assess how you feel afterward.  If you have any adverse effects, ask yourself, do they last five minutes, five hours or five days?  Depending on the answer, you need to increase or decrease the amount of time and effort you are making with walking.  As a guide, anything more than a three hour increase in discomfort means you're overdoing it.  Remember though to pay attention to your response AFTER your walk, not during, as this is a better indicator of how irritable your body and brain is.

If you don't overdo it, you'll improve so rapidly that after only a week you'll want to start increasing the amount of time, slowly now, to get to the point where you can walk for 45-60 minutes.  It might take eight weeks or it might take six months, depending on how your body responds.

When you reach the 60 minute range, you'll be improving brain health, fighting Alzheimers, etc, you'll definitely be burning fat, if that's your extra goal achieved.

When you can comfortably walk in this time range with no negative repercussions, you can add in some moderate intensity exercise, like a 30 second jog, and then another 30 second jog later in the walk around 75% of your maximum heart rate.  Once you've worked up to 6 x one minute jogs, then you're ready to add in some additional activities that take your fancy.

Strength work, flexibility and high intensity exercise come after all this preparation. You'll be so much more connected to what your body might want to achieve and what you might enjoy.  If you enjoy being out in the sunshine, then there are myriad options at your disposal.  Do something you like, do it with a friend and do it for your mental health, as well as to improve your pain.

 

1. http://www.canberratimes.com.au/act-news/exercise-could-be-the-answer-to-solving-one-of-australias-biggest-health-burdens-20160809-gqo8bi.html

 

Enter your email address:

Delivered by FeedBurner